Content

History of Dolni Lukavice to 1945

writer: Eva Klepsová

 

Book History of Dolni Lukavice


Castle brewery
Apart the castle is located a castle brewery. This baroque building was built in 18th century. First messages about brewery are from 1662. In 1713 there was a hop garden. Karel Schönborn decided to rebuild the old brewery into baroque style. Last reconstruction was in 1900. Since this time we can see the high chimney of steam engine. Annual production was 8 550 hl, it was the biggest amount in all surroundings. Brewery consisted of three wings in a shape of letter "Z". In 1929 the production of beer ended, brewery started to work in 1932 again. At about mid of 20th century the production was stopped.


Castle park
The perfect architecture is added by the castle park. It was founded probably after the finishing of building the castle. It used to be a baroque garden with many flower beds and nine pools. There was a hop garden and near the house of a gardener there used to be a meadow. We have a plan of the garden from 1797 – it was published by Heike, in this time the baroque garden was changed into "English park" it means there are many trees and bushes which does not need so much work, it´s much more natural. Near the castle used to be a "fruit garden" in this plan and at the end of the park there was a special place for breeding pheasants. In the upper part of park there used to be an alley. There are many different types of coniferous and deciduous trees. The most valuable is from coniferous: yew (taxodium distichum). Very important are also pine trees (pinus strobus). Important deciduous tree is for example oak (quercus palustris) and a linden (tilia platyphyllos laciniata), next a chesnut (aesculus carnea) and silver maple (acer saccharinum). Many trees are very old that they could remember the old baroque garden. The reason of the change from baroque garden to English park was fashion in this time. In this time was romanticism in fashion and it means that people wanted to spend more time in nature, have picnics, enjoy the life in nature, there were many novels written by Sir Walter Scott and many castles built in romanticism.

Baroque garden was made by Jan Ferdinand Schor (1686 - 1767) probably after the year 1713. Schor was an architect and painter of the time, professor of technical college. He came from Insbruck and then came to Rome and Prague. He had many pupils: Antonin Karel Schmidt, Jan Guirin Jahn. At the beginning of 18th century he started to prepare a castle theatre in Dolni Lukavice - we have plans.

Sculptures in park are from Ondrej Filip Quitainer (1679 - 1729). This artist did the vase decorations. He did also many statues of Czech saints and he did statues for many churches.
 
 
Church of St. Peter and Paul
Church of St. Peter and Paul is situated in the centre of the village. It´s a smaller gothic building dated in 13th century, when it used to be a wooden building. It was a „rectory“ church in 1352 and two years later a rector Nicolas died here. There used to be chaplaincy but it was cancelled by Jan from Lukavice in 1407 and soon after church was reconstructed. In 1407 there was an alter of saint martyrs (10 000 martyrs). In 1410 there was a reconstruction of bell. Jan called Lukava made a new altar on 2nd September 1415. During the war which lasted all 30 years in Europe the church started to became desolate and there was no rector. In 1650 there was a reconstruction and in 1652 there was a new rector. About 1658 there was a new main altar in contemporary look and also two smaller altars. Main altar from this time did not have a painting of St. Peter and Paul as we know now – there used to be a painting of sv. Peter with a baby. Probably in 1722 church was rebuilt to baroque style by Jakub Auguston (the same architect is for castle) in times of count Ferdinand Matyas Morzin. Church became bigger, there was a new oratory, a new choir and a sacristy. In 1723 church was designed into contemporary look and in 1727 the building was completed. There were many new altars too. One of them was admitted to holy orders by Jan Rudolf, count Spork – bishop of Prague. Paintings on main altar come from 1728 – 1734 from an unknown master. In 1883 countess Christina from Schönborn gave a small painting to rector Horcic for the church. Rector Lindauer started with reconstruction again and there is mention about tombs in church. There used to be two tombs: one near the main altar and the second one near pulpit. 29th June 1822 there was a reconstruction of ceiling, altars, pulpit and crosses. In 1834 were new organ made by Ferdinand Guth older from Cista. There was a stations of the cross – 1855 – painted by Jan Herzog from Pilsen. In church are set hearts of count Ferdinand Morzin and Marie Frantiska Rajska from Dubnice. More people are buried here but these two are the most important. On the spire is a clock – new machine to the clock was bought by Jan Schönborn in 1910. 
 
Near the church is situated a valuable statue built in baroque style – of St. John of Nepomuk from 1713. Next to church is also column of the crucification but they used to be in different place in village in the past.
 
Rectory in Dolni Lukavice
Rectory as a house of a rector, was in the past very often the only one bricked building in the village. Our rectory dated in 1800 as says the date (era) in the portal. It was built in baroque style with special "mansard" roof, typical for this architectional style. Over the entrance we can see in stucco a lion with a crown. It´s an emblem of lord - count from Schönborn.

Cemetary
Original cemetary was situated around the church of St. Peter and Paul in the centre of the village. It was probably founded in medieval times, in 15th century. During this time the cemetary was becoming smaller and smaller,so in 1771 there was founded a new cemetery behind the village (when you go away from village - direction Lisice.) This event was also supported by another event: in this time there was a plague epidemy there, so more graves were needed- there were 666 people infected and 268 of them died - says the Chronicle of rectory. During the time the cemetary was still becoming bigger and bigger - the newest is the back part of the cemetary. In the centre of the cemetary is a wooden cross and next to this is a grave of priests. in the upper part are found some graves of count family of Schönborn - Joannes Schönborn and a couple Zdenka and Karel Schönborn.
 
 
Sculptural sights
There are many sculptural sights in Dolni Lukavice. There are very interesting places:
 
Ionian column is found near the church of St. Peter and Paul. It´s a valuable sight – it´s a half made by people. On south-eastern part of the column is a notice: „Anno Domini 1741 at a cost of Adam Havranek was made column..“
 
Next part belongs to St. John of Nepomuk. This saint was blessed in 1721 and canonised in 1729. He´s a typical baroque saint, the most important next to Marian cult. He became a very favourite model for sculpturers, painters, many churches and cathedrals were derocated by him. He´s a patron of sailors, millers and protects againts flood so from this reason we can find his statues nearly on every bridge. He usually carries a palm branch, cross with Jesus Christ and has five stars around his head. There are two statues of him in Dolni Lukavice. First is found in front of chuch of St. Peter and Paul and second is on the bridge (direction Krasavce). First statue was built in 1713 so in this time when he was not „saint“, he was very popular in this time and count Morzin admired him. The second statue comes from 1807, but this is not in a good condition. It would need a reconstruction.
 
Next sculptural sight is a border stone. This stone is found near church, opposite the brewery – on the left side in direction Krasavce – Vodokrty. Count of Steinau put this stone here. There is a notice GVS and on it is carved a crown with five points and a date 1707. According to some messages this border stone is here probably at least 100 years.
 
Next sculptural sight is a cylindric column. This column is found on the crossroads in direction Pilsen – Dnesice – Prestice. It was built in 1830 and on the top is a cross. It was destroyed last time.
 
Patrons of Dolni Lukavice are St. Peter and Paul. In the half of 18th century were made two statues for them. They were built on a hill to „see“ people in village. First was statue of st. Peter – when you leave Dolni Lukavice in direction Pilsen – on the left. It´s after reconstruction. It´s a statue made of sandstone and it´s situated in height 370 metres above see level. We can see the figure of a saint and a key – typical for st. Peter. Statue of st. Paul stands in direction Horni Lukavice on the left (in half of way) now it´s new – after reconstruction. It´s made of sandstone too and it´s located in height 357 metres above see level.
 
Staute of saint Vojtěch is found near the way to Prestice. It ´s a baroque statue built in 18th century. A legend says that in the past through this region went st. Vojtěch, so people decided to built a statue here. Nowadays there is found a cross only.
 
Very valuable are also statues in castle park made by Ondrej Filip Quitainer in 18th century. We can see some torzos of statues or vases. In spite of this very famous sculpturer his work is lying in the garden park.
 
Last sculptural sight is a memorial.in a small park in front of the school. It reminds dead soldiers in world war I. and II.
 
Jewish synagogue
The oldest synagogue in Bohemia is dated in 12th century, but probably there were some older synagogues. Jewish synagogue in Dolni Lukavice was built in 19th century. And later was rebuilt into house. We found information about a big fire in Dolni Lukavice in 1849. There were many buildings including synagogue destroyed by fire. Jewish synagogue used to stand in the middle part of village and had no 93. There was Adler´s family who had to look after this building. During this fire there were 37 buildings destroyed by fire. There were many jewish families who lost home: Barkus, Paradeis, Adler and Straus. After a big fire was built a new synagogue, but it was simplier. Synagogues don´t have any pictures with people but with plants, some ornaments and text motives. In every synagogue were places for men and women, it had to be separated, and it was in Dolni Lukavice the same. Women had a special place called women´s gallery. It was especially typical for 19th century. It used to be something like balcony. The place for praying was situated near eastern wall. Seats were situated along walls and prayers were faced into the centre of synagogue – where was read from Tora. There were found some objects from the synagogue: first is swathe for Tora which was dedicated by Abraham Adler from Dolni Lukavice when his son was born in 1859. This swathe was made of some stripes of cloth and small boy was covered to it during the ceremony of circumcision. There was some embroidery on it. Next object is a curtain from synagogue, dedicated by Glückl, wife of Herrsche Strauss in 1856. This curtain in Hebrew „parochet“ symbolised the curtain from temple of Jerusalem and had a shape of rectangle. It was made from very expensive cloth – decorated by gold and silver thread and pearls.. Both objects are in Jewish museum in Prague now.
 
 
Jewish cemetary
Jewish cemetary is found about 0,5 km out of village in direction to Lišice, it was founded in 1654, this date we can see on a granite board in the middle of the cemetary. Since 1923 there was nobody buried. Jiri Fiedler in his book "Jewish monuments in Bohemia and Moravia" says that there is a big difference between christian and jewish cemetery. In Dolni Lukavice there are younger and also older tombstones, somewhere we can see just a half of a tombstone because when somebody died he was buried down and other people above him in upper parts. Many tombstones are possible to read, some of them are not possible to read. Near the entrance used to be "kijor" let´s say something like washbasin - for symbolic washing hands after funeral ceremony. There are two types of tombstones - first called "stela" - common tombstone and "tumba" it means more boards put together which reminds antic sarcophagus or we can see "tumba" like a smaller house. In this cemetary are found only "stely". In upper part of the graveyard we can see more luxurious tombs with small gates. There are also many types of tombstones according to the letters and symbols on them. We can see tombstones belonged to kohanites (symbol of blessing hands) and levites (cannikin, or small can). we can see also other decorations - some plant decorations etc. Next quite interesting thing is, that sometimes there was a decoration of job what the dead person did for example scissors (hairdresser), grapes (symbol of intelligence) or in some cases there were animals as well - fish, bird, deer etc. Special place was for children, in Dolni Lukavice I found one children grave - it´s in down part of the graveyard - grave of Samuel Liowy who died at the age of 3 - he died in 1848 and belonged to levites. His mother Theresia Löwy is buried there too. Because there was cemetary in surroundings many jewish people were buried there from other villages or city Prestice. For example Katarina Trauer from Prestice - died in 1906 at the age of 87, Josef Adler from Letiny died in 1878 or Adolf Koretr from Predenice died in 1890 etc.
 
Georg Leopold Weisel
Jews were good merchants, but they were also good in bringing up children and there education. There were many scientists, lawyers, doctors, professors, politicians etc. One example of such man was in Dolni Lukavice. It was Weissel´s family – Georg Leopold Weisel was born in this family in 1804 as Joachim Löbl Weisel – very important writer and publisher of Jewish tales. His grandfather was David (born in 1737) and Ester (born in 1739) Weisel lived in Dolni Lukavice in house no 90. Their oldest son – Joachim´s father – Samuel Weisel was a merchant. He got married to Mary (born Haberkon) When he was a child he lived in Prestice and he supported his son when he studied university in Prague. Joachim graduated in Prague and then went to Klatovy when he worked as a surgeon, in 1840 he went to Všeruby to work as a doctor (G.P.) In 1843 he got married to a christian Anna Pavlovska. He had to come to christian religion and he suffered from this all rest of his life. We can read about relationships between Jew and Christian in his stories, newspaper articles etc. He met Czech writer Bozena  Nemcova in Všeruby. Weisel is an author of story about Golem (man made of clay) His most famous book is called „Tales of Prague Jews“. He died in March 31 in 1873 in Všeruby.
 
Jewish comunity in Dolni Lukavice
First written message about first jewish family in Dolni Lukavice is from 17th century when in 1624 we have family Weysslov (in German Weysslische), in 1641 moved there family Goldscheiderische. Next message is from 1654 when there was only one Jew. In 1696 is Adam´s family in Dolni Lukavice - couple Abraham and Buna with nine children. In 1699 there was Waissel´s family. Year 1705 brings information about three new jews - Joseph Lietman with wife Ethelle and one child - Kalmus (11). In 1713 is comming family of Wolf Goltscheider with his wife Andl and four children. In 1714 there were 41 jewish families in all barony. The biggest number of Jews was in 1793 - there were 77 jewish inhabitants. We can see many jewish names, in this time we find some which appears again and again: Abraham, David, Isak, Jakob, Joachim, Markus, Moises, Salomon, Samuel and for women: Anna, Barbora, Ester, Katharina, Eleonora, Phiipina, Rachel, Rebeka ... The year 1869 brings messages about seven families - Veisel, Teigl, Bloch, Steiner, Schnüdroher, Adler, Schanzer. Similar number of jews is in 1890 too. In 1910 we can find only two families. One of them - Bedrich Bloch fought in Russia during world war I. and he died of typhus. In 1921 there lived only 9 jews - couple Schanzer with two children and then family Bloch. All had to come to concentration camps and they died there. Because Jiri Schanzer was not found - his body - so we was in 1946 proclaimed death.
 
Education
School in Dolni Lukavice was founded during thirty-years war, but we don´t know the exact year. The oldest messages about school belong to 1679. In 1800 there was a very simple school: "In Dolni Lukavice there was a very old building with two windows only. During winter there were 60 - 70 children, some of them had to stand on one leg, because there were only five desks and very little space...." says one record in school chronicle. In 1821 there were two classes in school. Because of the increment of children there were two more classes in 1884, first lesson was in January 1885. Since 1890 there were lessons in six classes. In 1928 was the number of pupils smaller so they had to cancel one class. There were also many good teachers in Dolni Lukavice and many activities.
 
Mill in Dolni Lukavice
All mills in the past used to belong to authorities. Millers had to work only for some fees or gratis. there were also some rules of mills (Mlynarsky patent by Frantisek I. in 1814 for example.) First mill was in Dolni Lukavice in 14th century during the reign of Charles IV. In 1620 we find next message about Mansfeld´s journey to Pilsen and he burnt this mill down. In 1622 there is an information in chronicle: "Mill of Lukavice is made of stone, there are three wheels..." 1850´ s messages say that the mill had three wheels and a saw. In 1776 there was Mařík´s family. In this year there came Mr. Frantisek Pavlik from Stankov who got married with Mařík´ s daughter. Pavlík´s family used to work here for more than 100 years. In 1870 Mr. Pavlík changed the mill with Mr. Turek and since this time it belongs to Turek´s family. Turek´s family started to renew and rebuilt the mill. Very new mill was finished in 1926.
 
Brickworks
First message about brickworks in Dolni Lukavice is from 1662. We know that it was a very simple building with a shingle roof. Some quotations say: „Brickworks under a shingle roof with a broken kiln and there is a workshop, it´s deserted…“ In 1757 there was the same brickworks and in 1839 this brickworks belonged to the manor of Dolni Lukavice. It belonged to earl family of Schönborn (from Austria). During this time it was renew and rebuilt, it show many permissions of digging clay and some bills. At the beginning of 20th century the brickmaker was Mr. Jiri Cerveny. We found a rich correspondnce from 1920s. Most of this correspondence are orders, offers, letters between brick-workers and Schönborn´s clerks in Prague etc. Brickworks used to stand near castle park, in these days it does not exist. It used to stand near house no. 22 in this time Vokac´s family lives there. The oldest woman of Dolni Lukavice Mrs. Anna Pruchova (born in 1913) remebers brickworks: „They made bricks and roof tiles there. There used to be a big well. We were playing near here when we were children…..“
 
Winery  
First written message about winery  in Dolni Lukavice is in Land Jewish Register in April 1769. There is a transaction – Jew Jakub Salomon bought a small house near old winery for 134 florins. If existed any „new winery“ I was not able to find out. Maybe still-house used to stand there earlier, during the reign of Morzins. We do not exactly know where was the still-house located. Next messages are about people who helped in still-house: for example Jew Isaias Löw (Isaias worked in Kladruby). All people who worked in winery  were Jews: Lietman Joseph, Aron Barcus, Isac Winternitz, Wolf Waldstein etc. Next information is from 1839, in this year there was also a wine bar-room. It explains that rich family of Schönborn who owed this manor in this time loved good wine. We don ´t know the exact day of the end of still-house. We know that Schönborn family built in 1875 a distillery in near village Letiny.
 
Hospital
Small hospital was established in 1701 by Ferdinand Maxmilián count of Morzin. It was a very simple building with a shingle roof, there was only small amount of sick-beds. In 1765 it was extended (6 sick-beds) by count Josef Morzin. The hospital was extended during the reign of Schönborn too. We have messages about the nurses in hospital, in 1880 thee were two nurses: Jan Vagner and Dorota Pav. These nurses were different than we know now, they had to do all work in hospital. And where the hospital used to stand? Behind the house of Honzik´s family opposite the brewery. In 1920s there was no doctor there, he lived in different place in the village (no. 104) – it was a count doctor. The counts supported the hospital – they donated it (potatoes, milk, wood for heating..). When was the demolition of the hospital we don´t know. The oldest woman of Dolni Lukavice Mrs. Anna Pruchova (born in 1913) says that probably after world war II. the hospital wasn´t there.
 
Poorhouse  
Poorhouse used to be in every city or village. It was built behind the house no. 95. but when it was built in Dolni Lukavice is not known. In 1880 there used to stay 5 people. In this house were also born the ascendants of famous American astronaut J. A. Lovell (team Nasa in 1962). His grandparents emigrated to the USA at the end of 19th century and his mother got married to Lovell.
 
Granaries 
Granary used to stand in every village and there were more granaries in Dolni Lukavice. Messages from the year 1662 prove this: „In upper part of village is standing  a granary with a shingle roof, next to the brewery  is another granary and next to this place is third one, all covered with shingle roof.“  Granary was a very important building in the village – especially for farmers´ life. In 1788 there was a rule made by the emperor Leopold II.: everybody who owns any land must put a part of his harvest to municipal granary (of four types of cereals: wheat, rye, barley and oat). In 1832 a big granary was built in direction to Horni Lukavice, it´s still located there. It was built of stones and there is a saddle roof. Very important were windows because grains had to become drier and drier. Inside the granary are four floors – every type of cereals was put to one floor.
 
Woods, forester´s lodges, gamekeeper´s lodges
Wood was very important of people´s lives. Wood was a good for heating, also a building material, people made from it clogs, windows etc. During the times of Morzins there was a pheasantry near the castle park. There were about 40 - 50 pheasants. If there was any forester´s lodge I was not able to find out. Existence of forester´s lodge is proved in 1839 when the manor was owned by Schönborns. Woods in this time covered 2269 hectares, fields 2125 hectares and meadows 517 hectares. It was a very big area which was controlled by a directory. In 1860 many new trees were planted out. The directory was in Dolni Lukavice and there was one director and many other assistants. In 1880 the gamekeeper in Dolni Lukavice was Vojtech Cerveny. There are many memoirs of this time from literature. First tells about bidding welcome the gamekeeper with count etc. Karel Schwarz – the author of a book called Pomnenky also had some stories about woods etc. " People built racks. When the weather was very freezing they put some food to animals..." During the Schönborn´ s reign there was built a gamekeeper´s lodge in the end of castle park. In this time Babka´s family lives there no.97. Schönborns also built a hatchery for pheasants near pheasantary. In 1920s there were two woods called: Pansky and Haj. Haj was controlled by gamekeeper Cerny who lived in house no. 123 today there lives family Pirnik. Next gamekeeper lived in a house near pheasantary. In 1938 a part of woods was bought by Ferdinand Veverka, so Schönborns had only a small part of it.
 
Ponds
First written messages about ponds in Dolni Lukavice are from 1662. In this time there were many ponds. There were five ponds. First was found in upper part of the village and there were many carps in it, next was found on the way to Prestice, next was pond called Suchanov, the fourth pond was Kotlik found in fields and the last one was near the wood called Haj. There was a special man called "fishmaster" who looked after the pond. The last pond was found in front of the school. It shows the fotographs. When it was floods, children had to go to school by boat. This pond was ended later and today. In this time there are three ponds only.
 
Pubs
First pub in Dolni Lukavice was a tavern during thirty years war. Next information about pub is from the year 1757 : „There was one pub and the publican did not pay any taxes..“  In 1839 there were more pubs: the first „U Bednářů“ , the second „U Weisportů“. The pub „U Weisportů“ used to be a jewish pub, after Napoleonic wars this pub was bought by count Schönborn and he gave it to Mr. Hruby (no. 8) This pub was very sucessfull. In 1918 this pub was closed and until 1926 they sold beer in bottles. Before the world war I. there were many balls and parties. Next pub was called „Manor“ This pub still exists, we can find it on the right side when we leave Dolni Lukavice in direction Přeštice. It used to be especially for Schönborns and their employees. Mrs. Anna Pruchova – the oldest person living in Dolni Lukavice – remembers that there were many balls, parties, people used to drink beer, wine, liquers, lemonades from Bažant from Přeštice. This pub was very large – there was a kitchen, pantry, bar-room, hall, corridors, some rooms for counts, a flat etc. People played bowling there and next very interesting thing was „orchestrion“ a musical instrument brought from Italy, after putting a coin inside it was playing very nice melodies. Next pub was called „V Dirce“. First message about this pub is found in 1894 when this pub belonged to couple Kraus. This pub was quite small – only one room. People also played bowling there – usually every Sunday. This house is still found – no. 111.   Next pub (still existing) is „U Bílé Růže“   it was bigger pub than „ V Dirce“ and there many balls, parties, people used to play theatre there, there were some parties at New Year´s Eve etc. It was Mr Uzel´s pub. In 1926 – 1927 the pub was made bigger – there was a new stage and a cloakroom. There were many concerts too. Last pub was „U Uzlů“ This house is still found – it´s behind brewery. It was also a very popular pub. People used to eat porkpie, hash-and-crumbs sausages etc. there. It was a pub and butcher´s. The owner of this pub had a very sad ending, he used to take meat to Prague in a coffin (it was not allowed during world war II.) and he was arrested by gestapo, took to the prison and killed.
 
Music history of Dolni Lukavice
Dolni Lukavice is connected with many names of composers. Counts of Morzin loved music and they invited many artists there. 27 year-old Franz Joseph Haydn came to Lukavice between 1757 - 1759. He stayed there three or four years, we don´t know the exact date of his arrival and departure. He stayed there only in summer, he spent winters in his home in Austria. He spoke about his employer count Karel Josef Morzin as a „very passionate music lover“.  Haydn was very happy there, one part of his stay was in Prague in their palace. He composed his first symfony of his 140 symfonies in total called D- Dur Lukavicka.. Before Haydn there were many other composers: e.g. Johann Friedrich Fasch, Josef Antonin Sehling, Ignác Matuschka etc.   Josef Toman was a native man. He was born in 1894 in Dolni Lukavice and he was very talented of music. At the age of four he went blind and went to Prague to a special institution for blind children. He was very supported by his parents eventhough they had many debts afterwards.  He went to Prague - Klárov where Josef Toman went to different school. When he went back from Prague he sang in the church of St. Peter and Paul and he was very excited of the sound of organ. He started to play the piano and later organ. His dream to play the organ in church in Dolni Lukavice came true and he played during the mass. He also composed many pieces of music. When he died was not found. Next native man talented of music was Jan Levý. He was born at the end of 18th century. He studied a special school of music in Prague and he became famous as English horn player. In 1821 he started to teach in school in Dolni Lukavice. There were 198 children. Children loved him. We don´t know when he died. Last very talented person was Antonin Witek. He was born at the end of 18th century and his parents wanted him to stay at home and worked in the farm. He also went to Prague to study. Together with Jan Levy were attending music lessons. Witek was also English horn player.
 
 
Baker´s in Dolní Lukavice
There were many bakers in Dolni Lukavice. In 1860s there was one baker´s owned by Jan Pavlik and his wife. They lived and had baker´s in house no 60. Before world war II. there were three bakers: Průcha, Fremr and Hodic. 
 
Jan Prucha came from a bake family. His baker´s in no 95 in Dolni Lukavice was established in 1937. His wife helped him very much with everything. In this house used to be an oven in the past, so they did not have to buy an oven. They had a horse and a carriage and they brought bread and rolls in other villages. They started to prepare the dought at three o´clock in the morning. They prepared not only bread and rolls but also Christmas and Easter cakes etc. They went for flour to the mill of Mr. Turek in Dolni Lukavice and also to mill in Borovy. Special flour for rolls was brought from Kalikovsky mlyn from Pilsen. They had a special sign on each loaf of bread – JP – like Jan Prucha.
 
In the 1880s was established second baker´s by Vojtech Fremr. He baked bread and his wife cooked for clerks, teachers and other workers. In 1907 this couple bought a land opposite church and started to build a house. They had eight children and many debts. They bought an oven. After Vojtech Fremr´s death their children started to continue with this business of baker´s. There was baker´s and a workroom. They baked rolls, buns, bread, cakes, similar like Jan Prucha.  Now in this house is Haydn´ s house (after reconstruction).
 
Last baker´s was of Mr. Hodyc. It´s house no. 79. It was established in 1905 and their bread was very delicious in all neighbourhood. They sold there also butter, salt, flour, coffee etc. In 1936 they bought a car Praga Alfa and started to bring their products to other villages. From 1943 name Hodyc is written Hodic. This baker´s was stopped in 1953.